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Problems in the cultivation

1. Replanting apple and pear Orchard






In many apple cultivating regions the problem of replanting occurs and results to many difficult obstacles to tackle, concerning the continuing of the cultivation. On this point we should wonder and search other regions with similar characteristics. Therefore, the region of Bolzano in N. Italy has been cultivated with apples for the past 200 years, having the free cup as an original system which system has been abandoned and replaced with the system of dense and hyper- dense planting during the last 30 years. Not even bearing in mind the climate conditions, we should mention that this region has been particularly prone to land diseases. Nevertheless, this region lives by the apple cultivation and it is the most powerful region in Europe. In countries of the former (Red Curtain) Eastern Block like Hungary and Poland etc the farmers kept their fields in a farm or kalxoz type. These areas have been replanted with apple trees even till now.

In consequence, the issue of replanting is not of an unsolvable nature.

There are two crucial problems that need immediate attention and solution, the existance of the phytophthora sp fungus category and the decrease of the new tree development.

In order to avoid the above, the cultivator should obtain material of the nursery which is free of the phytophthora fungus as well as a rootstock with efficient behavior towards the fungus like M9 and M26. In other words, the replanting of apple tree and the existance of the phythophthora fungus are obstacles that can be avoided. A measure of prevention, is the use of phosphurus fertilizers during the land preparation with the application of basic fertilizers on the whole surface. The phosphorus is the key element that acts in a beneficial way on the root development system and protects the plant from invasions. The root watering on the first years, is also a good prevention weapon and a method of treatment for the disease.

The development of the phytophthora fungus is increased by the bad soil ventilation, by subsided fields and by the strong tenacity of soil with bad draining. On situations like those, we make sure that the sapling is planted quite high, compared to the land level, and we provide additional soil on the surface, 3-4 cm below the point of grafting. This ensures the ventilation of the rooting system as well as the more favourable draining conditions. These are the well known''bumps''. The trees, though, are more water demanding on the first two years.

On the other hand, a replanting brings forward changes to the soil potential and to the development of a new plantation. The new trees are of decreased development. This can be dealt with the proper choice of the variety, of the rootstock used and of the planting method. Apparently the fertilizing programme can be accordingly abjusted.

In addition, no problems were mentioned in the replanting of pear trees orchard.

2. Pareniaptophoria Phenomenon




This phenomenon describes the condition under which the apple trees extensively bear fruit one year, while on the following year bear almost nothing. It is seen on vivid trees grafted to sporophyte rootstock or to a MM106 of old age. The reason for the above lie on the farming techniques used, especially those of spacing out and of pruning. Whistl pruning, in particular, the refresh of the fruitful organs and the keeping only the thin branches and the lamvourdes are advised. The thin branches are small annual sprouts with tip- fartherst eyes are fruit bearing (vividly swollen). Also the lamvourdes are annual fruit bearing organs that appear on a second year sprout- wood. Therefore, lamvourdia can bear fruit 3 years in total, although this must be avoided since after the first year the quality of the fruit is decrated. The natural process of lambourdia must be the following. During the pruning, we let the young lambourdies to bear fruit but on the next year we remove them either entirely or with a short branch into a rear thin branch.

The thin branches also produce fruit of good quality. Their natural process is the following. The tip eye that bears fruit after it has been fertilised the cultivator should space out the small sprouts letting only one to grow. Due to the fact that the eye of the apple tree is of mixed type ( it entails both blossoming and sprouting origins) during the blossoming period the thin branch enlongates few centimetres and it ends to a blossoming eye again. That is why, the phenomenenon of pareniautophoria , as long as the tree keeps its nutritionous balance, is of no concern.

3. Factors of Fructification

During blossoming period, almost all the apple tree cultivators with special reference to those who cultivate Red Delicious varieties use fructification hormones, giberilines and benzylamines in particular. The proper use of the above hormones leads to the desirable fruitage and to the desirable fruit shape. On the contrary, those hormones affect the behaviour of the fruit after it has been picked, suspenting it, during the preservation period. Consequently, the fruit appears internal brown colour. In addition, we should bear in mind that the benzylamine is a detrimental substence to the human body. In order to obtain the correct fructification outcome, it is important to understand the physiology of the blossoming, the needs of the plant on this stage and the nutritient balance of the tree. The need for nutrients depend on the stage of the fruit bearing organ of the apple and pear tree, accordingly. This is where we should intervene, with the appropriate nutritious products as to fullfil the possible lack of our plant nourishment.

The Poultsidis Nurseries and KIKU Hellas provide assistance of vital importance to the apple-pear cultivator, with a fructification programme of spraying as to accomplish:

  1. Satisfying fruit bearing each year.
  2. Balanced trees as far as the nutrients are concerned
  3. Appealing fruit
  4. Excellent, after picking the fruit, behaviour
  5. The least possible detrimental subsidues and the cut down on cost

The spraying  programme has been developed with the assistance of the Spanish company AMC  Chemical Ltd and Trichodex SA, which has used its numerous years of experience under the scope of your success. The products of their internationally recognised factories are represented in N. Greece by us (see the relevant webpage), and you can find them in your local agriculturist. Ask for them! 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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