In many apple cultivating regions the problem of replanting occurs and results to many difficult obstacles to tackle, concerning the continuing of the cultivation. On this point we should wonder and search other regions with similar characteristics. Therefore, the region of Bolzano in N. Italy has been cultivated with apples for the past 200 years, having the free cup as an original system which system has been abandoned and replaced with the system of dense and hyper- dense planting during the last 30 years. Not even bearing in mind the climate conditions, we should mention that this region has been particularly prone to land diseases. Nevertheless, this region lives by the apple cultivation and it is the most powerful region in Europe. In countries of the former (Red Curtain) Eastern Block like Hungary and Poland etc the farmers kept their fields in a farm or kalxoz type. These areas have been replanted with apple trees even till now.
In consequence, the issue of replanting is not of an unsolvable nature.
There are two crucial problems that need immediate attention and solution, the existance of the phytophthora sp fungus category and the decrease of the new tree development.
In order to avoid the above, the cultivator should obtain material of the nursery which is free of the phytophthora fungus as well as a rootstock with efficient behavior towards the fungus like M9 and M26. In other words, the replanting of apple tree and the existance of the phythophthora fungus are obstacles that can be avoided. A measure of prevention, is the use of phosphurus fertilizers during the land preparation with the application of basic fertilizers on the whole surface. The phosphorus is the key element that acts in a beneficial way on the root development system and protects the plant from invasions. The root watering on the first years, is also a good prevention weapon and a method of treatment for the disease.
The development of the phytophthora fungus is increased by the bad soil ventilation, by subsided fields and by the strong tenacity of soil with bad draining. On situations like those, we make sure that the sapling is planted quite high, compared to the land level, and we provide additional soil on the surface, 3-4 cm below the point of grafting. This ensures the ventilation of the rooting system as well as the more favourable draining conditions. These are the well known''bumps''. The trees, though, are more water demanding on the first two years.
On the other hand, a replanting brings forward changes to the soil potential and to the development of a new plantation. The new trees are of decreased development. This can be dealt with the proper choice of the variety, of the rootstock used and of the planting method. Apparently the fertilizing programme can be accordingly abjusted.
In addition, no problems were mentioned in the replanting of pear trees orchard.